Monday, February 23, 2009
people who are interested shall stay back and give their best. people who want to go and forced not to go; if remain might not give in their best. weapons of the weak might come to play in this regards if people who want to go are made to stay and do not participate.
It is here that me and my friends discussed that people who r leaving is just because IRMA does not give adequate holidays and that is why people want to go home. in this case what is happening in Jatra is just a symptom and not 'the problem'.
so is it the collective action that is falling or it is the superstructure that is making it more powerful?
Saturday, February 21, 2009
Now coming to our CAC end term exam. I really loved writing for the question regarding sanitation problem. It really covered all the topics of our class room learning's and did so in such a subtle but yet power full way. It really fascinated me more because we did something related to that during my village fieldwork stay. We constructed a toilet at our host family in the village and to say the least it was really a great satisfying moment and a thing a cherish for lifelong.........now coming back to CAC exam, i really don't know how i fared but i enjoyed those 2:30 hrs........in those 2:30 hrs i completely relived my village stay.......Thanks!!!!!
it so happened that i also received a call from my village while writing this post!!!!!!!!
Tuesday, February 17, 2009
the quote of gandhi ji right in today context also....non-violence is a weapon of weak. As we know his, non co-operation movement was the first ever series of nationwide peoples movements of non-violent resistance and civil dis-obidedience by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian national congress (INC). ‘Ahimsa’ or non-violence was to be strictly observed during non co-operation movement. The non co-operation movement marked the Gandhian era in the phase of independence movement in India.
Gandhi ji was also very knowledgeable about the action situation India was in at that time. He knew that people of India as a mass were timid and not capable of using guns against British rule. So, wisely he chooses his end as freedom. He was very tactical in choosing this. He used the tools of Hartal (Strikes), fasting and non-violent processions. He induced the wave of primitive sympathy in people of India by surrendering his titles, honors and medals to viceroy (Governor General). This action of his promoted the similar feelings in minds and hearts of the mass.
During ANAND RUN on 26th jan 2009. we seen the primitive sympathy of PRM29 by RS.1000 contribution,
and in my view Gandhi ji is a great motivator for youth and his theories must be puposed in CAC sessions.
This was not so easy but,pessimist never win a battle. So There is need to focus on this area by encouraging entrepreneurship in small industry as well as service sector to take root in rural areas. Through this programme for providing employment opportunities to the poorest of the rural poor. However, I would like to point out that some States and regions face difficulties in implementing the rural development programmes in initial stages.
we as a Rural engineer take this as a new year resolution, I donot think this is impossible. We have access to technology/ resources why not we suggest something that is helpful for them......through collective action
In December i posted one blog in which i told about how villagers from my village Dandkala were able to collectively work towards the restoration of electricity in the our village. We provided the motivation to villagers and forwarded the application to Electricity board of Rajasthan with the help of our host organisation URMUL. when we left the village the electricity meters got installed and now just 10 days back when i called my NGO to know about electricity status i received one of the best news of my life ie now electricity has come in the village. Really a great satisfying moment and it reinforced my belief that villagers just need facilitators.
gujjar reservation movement. He floated a party during the movement and got the support of all the gujjars. He utilized the support for his political gains. This might be his stepping stone in entering into the politics.
so in a way the rich donated land and got the praise, accolades for it but ultimatly the movement failed to produce the changes in society that it wanted. so everyone talks about the necessity of collective action for upliftment of society but are the privileged really ready to share their power, resources? And without these will any collective action be of any use?
Well as we all know that today is the last day that we have to write a blog to get an incentive of 5% in this subject but are we actually doing it because we want to do it?? the question is between wants and needs..we need to write if we want 5% or we write because we want everyone to know what we think and get to know their paradigm at the same time. which one do we all prefer?
there may be few like me who have not yet post their blogs.. does that mean thier learning is nil from the subject?? you may name it as "weapons of the weak" but at the end of the day what matters is not how much marks you score but how much co-operation techniques you have learnt from these 30 sessions. When we go for practical implementation i'm sure most of us would not think about the "rules of Tactics or strategies" but apply whatever is feasible for them at that point of time.
As Prof. Sony had rightly mentioned in the class that most of the blogs are mere posting but not reflections/comments by others. My question is could we not have initiated a collective action to force each other to read our views and motivated them to comment on them? something must have motivated Giddens and Popkins to write their views somewhere(blogging didn't exist back then) so that we can use their ideas and reflect upon them in the future.
Well i'm not much of a writer but i'm sure of one thing that if such initiative is taken in the future there has to be a leader who must emerge out of PRM 29 and leads from behind and motivates all the participants not only to post blogs but also to reflect upon other's blogs. And the participants must also understand that this is an event where they themselves are the actors who can bring changes in the structure of the line of thoughts of many through interacting with the environment.
Who knows that may be the reader of this blog is the next CAC-Guru of IRMA??
My first and last post for CAC -term 2
Hope will get more to write in the time to come !
What requires greater cooperation.... a purpose which is socially accepted and considered as progressive in the realm of social jargon or a purpose which is not socially accepted as well as seen in good light. My take on this is that an antisocial goal not only needs greater cooperation but also needs great trust among the colluders.....if I am sounding little abstract then let me cite a practical example which just happened with us. Since grades are relative in IRMA and it is also very important for academically marginalised people. Therefore we decided to generate collective action in one of the quizzes.........the plan was everybody will submit his or her paper blank which will yield zero marks which was not such a bad idea considering the fact that one could also fall on the left side of the zero. And ultimately by generating this kind of cooperation everybody will land at grade B which is remarkably good. But alas! We could not able to carry this one out as the chances that nobody will defect are very low, and defection even by a single person have defeated the whole purpose. Had it been a socially noble cause generating collective action could not have been that difficult.
Monday, February 16, 2009
yes..that's right! p2p is the biggest collective action endeavour on net. it surpasses well ahead on the worthy contendors wikipedia or so called customer generated content sites as youtube and the community development platforms for tools such as seamonkey or mozilla. in one of the estimates by IEEE it was said that about 40% of internet traffic in North america is p2p.
it is not much of a hard work to see what could be the reason behind the grant success of p2p technologies. the latest movies, games, music and programs without spending a penny. the mindset of pirate are so easy to read. "self interest" or is it so???
even when such a thing is illegal the popularity surpasses anything else. how much they try MPAA is unable to counter the growth around the world. when napster went down there came umpteen number of replacements. for one stage6 there came vreel to veoh.
collective action against collective action.. all the major studios, biggest law firms and law enforcers are trying to put an end to the phenomenon. but it just refuses to die down. it is just that the pirate tradition has transcended to the modern world. but a collective phenomenon at such a level , I wonder if such a thing ever happened
i dunno if he is using the weapons of the weak. He might be powerless and sick of living on the planet earth but what is taking him to the level of consciousness where he is taking other lives with him and causing the maximum destruction.
and i have found the following link
The sale of cola products in the state has been lower compared to other states in India. The percapita consumption of colas in Kerala is estimated to be 1.5 bottles per annum compared to 50 in delhi. In fact the biggest consumption of colas is for the purpose of mixing with liquor. Otherwise the sale would have been much lower.
it would be quite natural for a populace to be enraged by a 'giant greedy corporate' drawing water resources to supply external markets. but there can be larger reasons behind the publicity achieved by the agitation.
Though mylamma was celebrated as the leader, the decision makers were the sidekicks who were mostly from outside the locality. but they had found the issue to be within their moral realms so that the direct beneficiary status was not an issue at all. Rather we can say that Mylamma became a symbol for the agitation. it was no wonder that the strike against MNC attracted scores of activists from around the globe.
Milaap is one of the most recent events wherein almost all of us actively participated. Being a person in the thick of action I had the pleasure to closely observe the people and processes involved right from the planning to the implementation stages.
The success of Milaap was the result of a collective effort by the participants, faculty, alumni and the IRMA community at large. Eventhough it is termed as a completely student run initiative it required (and fortunately had) lot of institutional support. Participants through their months long planning and involvement, faculty with their timely guidance, alumni through their enthusiastic participation joined hands for the success of an uncertain outcome – Milaap’09. It wouldn’t have been possible to organise such an event without the help of ETDC and MESS. Hence it was collective action in every sense.
One interesting thing which was noted during the entire process was the way we used power at our disposal. Various teams were formed to perform different tasks. Roles and responsibilities were clearly (?) identified. May be because there was too much clarity about our job, we used our power quite effectively. It was quite similar to the ‘weapons of the weak’ (though I don’t mean to call anyone amongst us as weak) mentioned in one of the articles. Most of the times the poor victim of this power game was the Milaap coordinator who was literally squeezed between various committees left with not too many options on many occasions. In that sense the person who was supposed to be at the helm turned out to be the least powerful among all.
The Free Rider problem
Public goods provide a very important. The production of public goods results in positive externalities which are not remunerated. If private organizations don't reap all the benefits of a public good which they have produced, there will be insufficient incentives to produce it voluntarily. Consumers can take advantage of public goods without contributing sufficiently to their creation. This is called the free rider problem.
For example, consider a group assignment is given to four students by an faculty, and this assignment is very important as it hold 25% of overall weight age of total marks but still one of the group member did not participate in preparation of assignment but at the time of presentation all the member of group present their part including the member who did not participate in making of assignment and above all he delivered his part without seeing matter once before coming to class because of that group did not good grade. I am not sure what should be the probable solution for this problem. But this problem arises many times.
Another example is, consider a national defense, a standard example of a pure public good. A purely rational person is an individual who is extremely individualistic, considering only those benefits and costs that directly affect him or her. Public goods give such a person incentive to be a free rider.
Suppose this purely rational person thinks about exerting some extra effort to defend the nation. The benefits to the individual of this effort would be very low, since the benefits would be distributed among all of the millions of other people in the country. There is also a very high possibility that he or she could get injured or killed during the course of his or her military service.
On the other hand, the free rider knows that he or she cannot be excluded from the benefits regardless of whether he or she contributes to it. There is also no way that these benefits can be split up and distributed as individual parcels to people. The free rider would not voluntarily exert any extra effort, unless there is some inherent pleasure or material reward for doing so.
Let us understand this by an example. In case of attack on non Marathis in Mumbai, Mumbaikars acted collectively against someone who seemed to be infringing upon their geographical identity. In this case Marathi identity of mumbaikars came at fore. But why? Attackers and victims might be of same religion but that identity is lost somewhere. Had that religious or national identity been at fore, in all probability these kind of things would not have happened. So here, my only point is that if in any way we can invoke a particular identity of a person whole premise of collective action will change. if we can invoke national; identity in place of geographical or religious identity whole genre of collective action will be transformed. Eager to know your responses.
During my limited exposure to unfathomable world of collective action and co-operation, I tried to learn whatever I was exposed to. Now when fag end of subject is imminent, I am bound to think weather we have discussed only white side of collective action. Recent headlines in newspapers form the basis of my premise.
Hundreds of innocents have been massacred in Gaza collectively. US-supplied Israeli F-16 warplanes and Apache helicopters dropped bombs on dozens of locations in the Israeli-occupied Gaza Strip, killing hundreds of civilians. The U.S. government was one of the first to offer its support for Israel’s attacks, and other western countries followed. Those who are not explicitly involved in massacre are supporting actions of Israel by keeping their mouths shut. At this juncture, I am allowing myself to ask a simple question, what kind of collective action and co-operation it is?
Israel is a member of UN and UN was agency, which envisaged emergence of a new world order by collective action and co-operation of member countries. But here in case of Israel -Palestine quagmire a new world order has been set up to vanish Palestine identity by collective action of US and some more western countries. Certainly this kind of actions are in benefit of US, Israel so it might be beneficial for them but what about the world as a whole? Will we keep this kind of action under collective action and co-operation?
Actually, there are two points of view that come to my mind. In a way I do feel that we have failed in choosing the right leader and have brought upon ourselves such a situation. We have the right to vote and are responsible and accountable for the government we elect and even be a part of it. The latter however may not be feasible for all of us but with a voter turnout of around 60% and dropping to 30% we don’t use our rights effectively and hence are responsible if goons get into the parliament. We are at fault. We have an active media that allows us to raise our voice and show collective leadership as in the case of Jessica Lal, Priyadarshini Mattoo etc and more recently after the Mumbai attacks etc., where our collective action shook the upper echelons of the government and judiciary. Given that we have such powers and are unwilling to use it on a regular basis makes me feel that we deserve to be blamed for the leadership vacuum.
However on the other hand I have two questions, we have a right to vote but not the right to choose who we want to vote. I mean I am given a list of candidates where none may be worthy of selection, in that case am I to be blamed if we don’t have effective leadership. It’s like an MCQ with all wrong answers! Votes are also rigged, money and muscle power used, petty populism tricks are applied, passion are flamed in the name of religion, caste and vote-banks are created. We can’t always vote in a rational manner in such a situation. These are the two issues which make me feel I am not to be blamed for the mess.
All in all , I am a firm believer in democracy and believe that it is the only system of governance that has the avenues for self correction and believing on its ability to improve itself I think taking active part in this “system” as opposed to being passive observers is the best way to discover the next INDIAN LEADER.
Ever been in a condition where a loved one is away and you have no clue whether he is alive, whether he is safe? And when the next week, u see a coffin driven to your door step, wrapped in the Tricolour, the only solace you have is THE CAUSE for which it all happened.
But our "leaders" keep refusing to face the reality. All we need is a reassurance that this will end some day. That Kashmir will be ours again and that whoever has fought for that cause did not fight in vain. Can no one ever assure us of that? Is it a pointless thing to ask? Will this go on forever? Well, I do not know where to look for answers to such "diplomatic" questions. It is disturbing. It is unnerving. There are people like us undergoing rigorous training in various defence academies to become soldiers, officers, commandos. For what? To fight and die for an issue that our leaders have learnt to ignore?
One whole chunk of our nation has been taken away and we still do not know whether we are going to get it back. What does this show? Do we not have the courage, the determination and the grit to say out loud and clear that we will get back what we have lost and that no one can divide India?
It was said today that the terrorists are trying to “divide” us. What about the fact that a whole part of India had been taken away by outsiders, been divided and carnaged? Why isn’t anything been done about that? Why are we being asked to live with it? To accept it? Is it always going to remain this way?
Is this mutilation of our country, our pride, and our psyche permanent?
Everyday, another officer dies fighting for the lost land. Living and breathing the dream that is a “diplomatic” issue for our so called leaders- leaders for whom we wait for hours, for whom we rise and applaud.
Our soldiers deserve to know what they are dying for.
Theirs not to make reply,
Theirs not to reason why,
Theirs but to do and die
Into the valley of DeathRode the six hundred.
I do not want to believe in Lord Alfred Tennyson. But I am being forced to.
Just like the one billion of us.
Everybody has the right to select their own leader in India. Then what is stopping us from exercising our basic right - Right to Vote? We complain about bad roads, power problems, water problems, corrupt politicians and unfair reservations, but what are we doing about it? If we are not ready to use your power (right to vote), then which way will we make our voice heard? It is a big question in the minds of the youth to whom should they cast their votes ? The answer is a bit difficult to give. One should take rational decision and should exercise his / her power to vote to keep the pillar of democracy intact for its sustainance in this contemporary world .
The only weapon which can change the fate of our nation is voting which needs to be used in appropriate way for electing the eligible one who is going to rule / serve us for almost 5 years. We need to evaluate before casting our votes. Let us make the difference with our valuable votes. Please vote: The only way to change our nation.
So if we consider the willingness of Pakistan to cooperate on war against terror with India or with any other country, than Pakistan is cooperating without any willingness. That is, the Pakistani establishment (or at least a part of it) is in hands with gloves with the terror groups and they are not willing to withdraw the support to the terror groups in the near future.
Now let us try to scratch the surface a bit. Pakistan is deeply suspicious of India (the same way we are suspicious of China) as India is a very big and powerful country, it wants to take the revenge of 1971 war defeat and a well functioning terror network is helpful to Pakistani rulers (civil as well as military) in continuing its grip over Pakistani politics as well as in maintaining its hegemony over Afganistan. Therefore, until and unless there is a serious threat from the terror groups to the Pakistani establishment, they are not going to eliminate the terrorist from their soil. And to avoid international criticism, they will use different means to show that even they are hapless victims of the terrorists. So it is highly probable that in after 5 or 6 months, the Pakistani establishment will revert to its old ways.
So what is the way out of this catch 22 situation? One possible way is that India along with other Western nations maintains the pressure on Pakistan by using new methods and asks it to act on the terror groups. At the same time, India also has to show to Pakistan that it is sincere in its effort to resolve all disputes (without giving up much strategic leverage). In addition to that, America has to resolve the dispute of Palestine (this central to the worldwide Islamic jehad) and it should give up its quest for maintaining hegemony in Middle East (for oil). This collective action of America, India (and other nations like Israel) will go a long way in assuring the jihadis that we are sincere in resolving our disputes with the Islamic world and then only they will come to the terms of giving up this struggle.
Are they facing a fight for their survival? Is Sikkim a taste of what is to come on the national scene in ,say 20 years time?
I bet the constitution makers would not have thought this in the their wildest of dreams. This would bring the worlds largest democracy to the knees as with no options to choose from your and my voting rights are as good as gone too.
The point I am trying to make here is that is collective action all that good?
comments and criticism are welcome..
The National Commission for Women instead of supporting the women, who were targeted, has out rightly blamed security lapses during the incident. The Commission in a statement said that it will recommend cancellation of licence of the restaurant as it was supposed to serve only food to guests.
Should we jump to any conclusions after this statement or wait for the entire proceedings to take place? Your guess is as good as mine....
For any collective action to happen there must be some unfulfilled needs and wants so towards the end of the 19th century Mumbai say huge influx of migrants from various parts of India as lot of textile mills were getting established in and around Mumbai. These people came without there families and at that point of time there was also no concept of canteens. Since working hours was were very early so they were also not able to prepare food for themselves. As these people came from different parts of country so there food preferences were also different but as a whole they were looking for fresh home cooked food.
Mahadev Bache identified the need and thought of problem as opportunity. He recruited youth from his village but since his idea was unheard of at that point of time so only youth with insufficient agricultural income came forward. Operations began in 1890 with 20 dabbawalas, monthly charges were 2/- per month per customer and target customers were majorly Textile mill workers. It became charitable trust in 1956 and current employee strength is around 5000 dabbawalas. Earnings per member is around 5000-6000/- per month and number of tiffins handled on daily basis is around 2 Lakh.
Mumbai dabbawalas follow the flat structure for better communication between top management and dabbawalas. Instead of following top down approach they follow the bottom up approach. Dabbawalas have high degree of faith in the organization and every departing dabbawala is committed to finding a replacement before leaving. Each Dabbawala is share holder of the organization inline with the Amul model and it acts as a motivation for the Dabbawalas to perform efficiently. The delivery rates of the dabbawallas are so nominal (about Rs 300 per month) that one simply wouldn't bargain any further. It provides very competitive rates to the House wives and also offer lot of benefits to the dabbawallas.
Sunday, February 15, 2009
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Someone has rightly said " In democracy once in every five years people experience freedom and then again are sent inside cage for the next 5 yrs."
In each election I am forced to select a less criminal because I have no choice.Our politicians avert many fundamental questions labelling them as "Technical" and say I am proud of my poor/hungry citizens and these are like our parents, we cant hide them.But when questions like less distribution of rice and wheat in PDS shops to these very parents are raised, excuse is given in form of deeply entranched evils in our society.Surprisingly entire hall claps... we subjugate ourselves under his/her false persona ... and we silently let the deficiency of system to rule over us...
May be this all makes very little sense, the point is we need to see the article not only related to dialogues but it connects with us in bigger and broader senses.
CAC is easier when outcomes are tangible, when outputs are measurable (remember costs>benefits), when agents desire to achieve it within a certain period or at least can feel gratified if things are moving in desired action in his lifetime but what about outputs that are equally or at times more important. We do not take pain to indulge in action because we may not be the affected ones neither in present nor in future or better to say we may not realize that we would be affected.
Let me take an example analysis of which is based on inspiration from theory of structuration. Few days back one of us put fine on three of our seniors in the afternoon but the notice was removed when I went to take dinner. Because it was put before I went to take lunch and I saw it being there when I came out, it is hard for me to believe that no one else would have seen it. But why no reaction when the notice was removed??? Also look at the ways some rules are continuously broken. No one now has an objection if you play in the mess lawns. We can feel in the air that culture is changing and in all probabilities, it will perpetuate because we will pass it on to our juniors, undoubtedly without giving a thought.
Another example which I am going to keep very brief. How do you think change in culture of any society originate? During video on Bihar shown by Bihar Development Trust, we realized that Bihar has a very rich socio-cultural history. So how and why has it reached its present state. It is because ‘intangible has got defeated’. There must have some aberrations that passed the muster that people did not realize hoe heavily it would damaged.
For last few days I am getting paranoid about whatever I do. I have started thinking in the following lines. Whatever I do and say will not be lost in time and space. If any negative or unwarranted things happen, it will influence persons close to me who in turn will influence other set of people and it thus way an innocuous incident may make its way through and become part of the system or reform it.
This course exposed us not only to the diverse thought processes that have emerged at different points of time, but also tried to put across the relevance of these theories in managing the situations which we may face in our future endeavours.
Taking the case of our batch, we stood for each other when the prestige of our identity as a “BATCH” was at stake. We successfully organised “MILLAP” and “ANAND RUN”, despite all odds and challenges. But at the same time, when it came to the issue of assignments and projects, our behaviour reflected immaturity in terms of a collective force. This somehow reflected that when personal stakes are high and competition exists among different stakeholders, they try to maximize their own returns, be it at the stake of others. And this reflects the situation where even literate (forgive me for this, but we also tend to call ourselves CRITICAL THINKERS and intellectuals) people like us tend to run after personal gains, rejecting the collective spirit to which we had ascribed earlier.
Such events put forward the most critical question: Is Collective Action only for the so called MARGINALISED and OPPRESSED??? Or we as IRMAns can shoulder some responsibility, at least at our own level, to put-forth before this world that whatever has not been achieved individually can be achieved collectively (and we have examples of great institutions and individuals before us to emulate)??? If we are able to achieve success on this front, then I believe we will be able to do justice to the COLECTIVE SPIRIT………………
Friday, February 13, 2009
I think there is no such thing as collective action. It is like coming together of people who feel that a certain thing cannot be done single handedly. Why do people collect? They assemble to do a particular task, with some objective in mind and all efforts are targeted towards achieving that goal or objective. They are motivated by some self guiding interest which creates an inspiration in them to be a part of the collective action. After that the task is achieved, they again go back to their own lives and pursue their self interest.
All collective actions comprises of some self interest of individuals involved in it. Even if two friends come together, it is said that there is some sort of collective action happening. They like each other’s company, help each other in times of need, etc. But even if they are helping or caring each other, the hidden self interest is that they may derive happiness by helping that person or have a feel good factor to do so.
Take the example of any movement, why do people come out on streets or protest about it. The reason is that there is some hidden self interest factor which would be served if the movement is successful. If we take this thing to a metaphysical level, the person may participate in a movement just for having a sense of achievement, or just to be happy to have participated in the movement. Again the guiding factor is self interest
I am tending here to say that human being is selfish, doing things to have personal gains and this include even getting satisfaction or becoming happy. This is the inherent nature of the human being. I may be sounding quite a sadist and quite unreasonable in my argument but sometimes I feel like this way and sometimes look Collective Action in this line of thought.
Thursday, February 12, 2009
In order to counter this one pattern that might emerge in future is formation of common groups across all subjects with each member taking up responsibility for certain project or assignment. This in itself would also be another form of collective action.
Collective action strategies require forms of organization based on the principle of achieving objectives gradually, starting with those that are less complex (building human and social capital) and moving on to those of greater complexity (eliminating poverty, modifying power relationships, deepening democracy). Second, the policies and strategies of some international agencies, governments and institutional donors, which demand immediate and visible results against complex objectives within three to five years, may be dramatic but they will not be effective, and much less sustainable.
Collective action is no guarantee by itself that opportunities or benefits will be distributed in an equitable manner among the different segments and strata of rural groups, communities or organizations. In particular, experience suggests that rural collective action has failed to achieve the expected results in terms of promoting gender equity. On the contrary, collective action often leads to the exacerbation of inequalities within rural societies. If the intent is to change power relationships in the direction of greater equity, this must be made explicit and actions of the magnitude necessary to achieve that goal must be taken.
The success or failure of collective action strategies intended to improve living conditions for rural populations will depend on internal factors (values, standards of conduct, formal rules, mechanisms for enforcing rules and commitments, type of leadership), external factors (communication and cooperation among various stakeholders, linkages to "engines of sustainability" in collective actions) and contextual factors (in cultural terms, individualism versus solidarity; in economic terms, competition versus cooperation; and in political terms, autocracy versus democracy).
But combination of all these three factors always guarantees success?
The above requires greater dialogue and exchange, as well as greater inter-institutional coordination and effective collective action, in the context of a flexible security architecture. The simultaneous and parallel development of activities associated with defense, on the one hand, and security, on the other, will constitute spaces where mutual feedback will take place.
All of this will be possible on the basis of strengthening cooperative multilateralism